Penjelasan Direct and Indirect Speech Complete plus Contoh Kalimat

Banyak yang mengeluhkan materi bahasa inggris Direct-Indirect Speech adalah yang paling sulit karena banyaknya aturan yang harus diterapkan misalnya perubahan tenses, pronoun dan adveb. Tapi jangan kawatir, pada postingan kali ini saya akan menjelaskan secara rinci. Mudah-mudahan bisa dipahami.

Direct Indirect Speech


Direct Indirect Speech adalah kalimat langsung dan kalimat tidak langsung. Direct speech /Quoted speech (kalimat langsung) adalah kalimat yang berisikan laporan dari pembicara yang ditulis apa adanya. Ciri-cirinya tidak ada Conjunction, terdapat Quotation mark(tanda kutip).

Indirect spech/Reported speech (kalimat yang tidak langsung ) adalah kalimat yang dilaporkan oleh orang lain dan diceritakan kembali tanpa mengubah makna/arti. Ciri-cirinya terdapat Conjunction, tidak ada Quotation mark(tanda kutip).

Ilustrasi dalam bahasa Indonesia kira-kira seperti ini. Pada suatu hari Tsania bertemu Marwa di pasar. Kemudian mereka bercakap-cakap , cuplikan dialognya ada dibawah ini.
Tsania : “ Kamu kelihatan cantik”. (Direct Speech)
Marwa : “ Terima kasih “.

Kemudian Marwa pulang, di tengah jalan dia bertemu Nikita. Marwa pun bercerita kepada Nikita yang kebetulan juga mengenal Marwa. Eh Nikita, tadi aku ketemu Tsania loh, dia bilang kalau aku kelihatan cantik (Indirect Speech). Marwa menirukan apa yang diucapkan Tsania. Dalam bahasa Inggris itulah yang dinamakan Direct- Indirect Speech .

Macam-macam Direct- Indirect Speech

Direct Indirect Speech dibagi menjadi beberapa macam diantaranya adalah sebagai berikut:
1. Direct- Indirect Speech from Statement (Berasal dari kalimat pernyataan)
2. Direct- Indirect Speech from Question (Berasal dari kalimat pertanyaan)
3. Direct- Indirect Speech from Imperative (Berasal dari kalimat perintah)
4. Direct- Indirect Speech from Invitation (Berasal dari kalimat ajakan)
5. Direct- Indirect Speech from Exclamation (Berasal dari kalimat seruan)
6. Direct- Indirect Speech from Express gratitute, Wish and Greeting (Berasal dari kalimat ungkapan terima kasih, doa dan salam)

1. Direct- Indirect Speech from Statement

Untuk mengubah Direct Speech ke Indirect Speech ada aturannya yaitu:
  • Jika induk kalimat dalam Direct Speech berupa Simple Present maka tenses dan keterangan waktu atau keterangan tempat dalam Indirect Speech tidak mengalami perubahan, yang berubah hanya Pronoun (kata ganti ) saja.
Contoh :
Diretc Speech    : Lusi says, “ I am a high school student”.
Indirect Speech : Lusy says that she is a high school student.
Diretc Speech    : Tom has asked me, “ when will you go camping ?”
Indirect Speech : Tom has asked me when will you go camping.
Note : Lusy says ,Tom has asked me adalah induk kalimat yang mempengaruhi perubahan tenses.
  • Jika induk kalimat dalam Direct Speech berupa Simple Past maka tenses dan keterangan waktu atau keterangan tempat dalam Indirect Speech mengalami perubahan demikian juga Pronoun (kata ganti ). Perubahan itu mengikuti perubahan tenses.
Contoh :
Diretc Speech    : Ben told me,” You can do it tomorrow”.
Indirect Speech : Ben told me that I could do it the following day.
Diretc Speech    : I asked him, “What did you do last night?”
Indirect Speech : I asked him what he had done the previous day.
  • Orang pertama (orang yang berbicara ) dalam Diretc Speech kembali ke subjek induk kalimat dalam Indirect Speech.Contoh :
Diretc Speech    : Marsya tells us,” I don’t like fish”.
Indirect Speech : Marsya tells us that she doesn’t like fish.
  • Orang kedua (orang yang diajak berbicara ) dalam Diretc Speech kembali ke objek induk kalimat dalam Indirect Speech.
Contoh :
Diretc Speech    : Joe told us,” I don’t agree with you”.
Indirect Speech : Joe told us that he didn’t agree with us.
  • Orang ketiga (orang yang diberbicarakan ) dalam Direct Speech tidak berubah (constant) dalam Indirect Speech.
Contoh :
Diretc Speech    : Lintang says to us,” Bayu will not go with me”.
Indirect Speech : Lintang says to us that Bayu would not go wit her.

Tidak hanya Passive Voice , Direct Indirect Speech juga erat kaitannya dengan Tenses. Right !

Aturan perubahan tenses dari Direct Speech ke Indirect Speech
Direct Speech
Indirect Speeech
Simple Present

Present Continuous

Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous



Simple Past

Past Continuous

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous



Simple Future

Future Continuous

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous



Past Future

Past Future Continuous

Past Future Perfect

Past Future Perfect Continuous
Simple Past  

Past Continuous

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous



Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous



Past Future

Past Future Continuous

Past Future Perfect

Past Future Perfect Continuous



Past Future Perfect

Past Future Perfect Continuous

Past Future Perfect

Past Future Perfect Continuous
 

Jika  kalimat dalam Direct Speech berupa Tenses yang hurufnya saya beri warna merah maka dalam Indirect Speech Tenses tidak berubah (tetap)
Perubahan Auxiliary

Direct Speech

Indirect Speeech

Do/does
Is/am
Are
Have/has
Will/shall
Would/should

Did
Was
Were
Had
Would/should
Would/should

Perubahan Modal

Direct Speech

Indirect Speeech

May
Can
Must
Have
to
Will/shall
Could
Might
Would/Should

Might
Could
Had
to
Had to
Would/Should
Could have
Might have
Would have/Should have

Aturan perubahan keterangan waktu dan keterangan tempat (Adverb)

Direct Speech
Indirect Speeech
Now
Yesterday
Last week
Last Sunday
Two days ago
Four years ago
Today
Tomorrow
Next week
The day after tomorrow
Here
This
These
Then
The day before/The previous day
The week before
The Sunday before
Two days before
Four years before
That day
The following day/The next day
The following week
In two days time
There
That
Those

1. Direct- Indirect Speech from Statement
Jika kalimat Direct Speech berupa pernyataan (Statement) baik possitive atau negative, maka kata sambung (Conjunction) yang digunalkan adalah THAT yang bermakna BAHWA.
 
Contoh kalimat (Statement of Present):

DS : Tina says to her father,”I am verry happy today”.
IS  : Tina says to her father that she is verry happy today.
DS : Okta tell me,” I have not taken a bath”.
IS  : Okta tell me that she has not taken a bath.
DS : She says to me,’’I have given your pen’’.
IS  : She says to me that she has given my pen.
DS : He says to my mother,’’My mother is waiting for you’’.
IS : He says to my mother that his mother is waiting for her/my mother.
DS  : She says to Vivi,’’We are waiting for Mr.John’’.
IS  : She says to Vivi that we are waiting for Mr.John.
DS : Argo and Huda say to them,’’We will defeat you’’.
IS  : Argo and Huda say to them that they will defeat them.
DS : You and her say to him,’’You must follow me’’.
IS  : You and her say to him that he must follow you.
DS : She says to me,’’ I can’t hear you’’.
IS  : She says to me that she can’t hear me.
DS : I have said to them,’’ You have to help my friend’’.
IS  : I have said to them that they have to help my friend.
DS : They say to him,’’ We will not let you go’’.
IS  : They say to him that they will not let him go.
DS : I tell him,’’ You are borrowing my magazine’’.
IS  : I tell him that he is borrowing my magazine.
DS : Gufron tell us,’’ I am happy to meet her’’.
IS  : Gufron tell us that he is happy to meet her.
DS : My uncle says to me,’’ I bring new bike for you’’.
IS  : My uncle says to me that he brings new bike for me.
DS : He says to me,’’ I don’t understand your question’’.
IS  : He says to me that he doesn’t understand my question’’.
DS : Father has told us,’’ You don’t need to help him’’.
IS  : Father has told us that we don’t need to help him.
DS : He tells me,’’ My friends are waiting for me’’.
IS  : He tells me that his friends are waiting for him.
DS : My sister is saying to me,’’ I have something for your family’’.
IS  : My sister is saying to me that she has something for my family.

Contoh kalimat (Statement of Past):

DS : Paul told Anne,” I went hiking last week”.
IS  : Paul told Anne that he had gone hiking the week before.
DS : They said to us,” We won’t be in your party tonight”.
IS  : They said to us that they would not be in your party that night.
DS : I said to him,’’ You don’t have to wait for me’’.
IS  : I said to him that he didn’t have to wait for me.
DS : He said to me,’’ I am reading your magazine now’’.
IS  : He said to me that he was reading my magazine then.
DS : They said to me,’’ You looked so busy last night’’.
IS  : They said to me that I had looked so busy the night before.
DS : My father called me,’’ I will not bring your mobile phone’’.
IS  : My father called me that he would not bring my mobile phone.

2. Direct- Indirect Speech from Question

Question Sentence dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu :
1. Question Sentence dengan jawaban YES/NO
Jika kalimat pertanyaan dalam Direct Speech dengan jawaban YES/NO, maka kata sambung (Conjunction) yang digunakan adalah IF/WHETHER (Apakah).

Contoh :
DS : Kevin asks me,” Are you alright?”
IS  : Kevin asks me if I am alright.
DS : Farhan asked his father,” Can I continue my study next year?”
IS  : Farhan asked his father whether he could continue his study the following year.
DS : Tom asked Jerry,” Have you submitted your article?”
IS  : Tom asked Jerry if/whether Jerry has submitted his article.
DS : Lim asked Leo,” Will Kate enter the class tomorrow ?”
IS  : Lim asked Leo whether Kate would enter the class the following day.

2. Question Sentence dengan menggunakan Question Words (kata tanya)
Jika kalimat pertanyaan dalam Direct Speech menggunakan Question Words, maka kata sambung (Conjunction) yang digunakan adalah Question Words itu sendiri.
Contoh :
DS : Tania asked them,” Who phoned me last night?”
IS  : Tania asked them who had phoned her the night before.
DS : Farrel asks Fitri ,” What are you doing with your pencil?”
IS  : Farrel asks Fitri what she is doing with her pencil.
DS : They ask her,” Whose father has invited you to attend a seminar?”
IS  : They ask her whose father has invited her to attend a seminar.
DS : Amy asked her husband,” When will we go honeymoon again?”
IS  : Amy asked her husband,” When will they (Amy and her husband) would go honeymoon again.

3. Direct- Indirect Speech from Imperative

Jika kalimat dalam Direct Speech berupa kalimat perintah(Command) atau kalimat permohonan (Request), maka kata sambung (Conjunction) yang digunakan adalah TO (untuk kalimat perintah possitive) dan NOT TO (untuk kalimat perintah negative).

Contoh :
DS : Laili told us,” Be quiet!”
IS  : Laili told us to be quiet,
DS : Ken says to them,” Don’t go without me!”
IS  : Ken says to them not to go without him.
DS : Talita said to her brother,” Don’t be lazy to study!”
IS  : Talita said to her brother not to be lazy to study.
DS : Tommy tells Johan,” Do what you want!”
IS : Tommy tells Johan to do what he wants.
DS : Ella said to me,”Would you help me?”
IS  : Ella said to me to help her. Atau Ella requested me to help her.

4. Direct- Indirect Speech from Invitation

Jika kalimat dalam Direct Speech menggunakan LET’S , maka kalimat Indirect Speech bisa menggunakan kata kerja INVITE atau SUGGEST.

Contoh :
DS : Afis said,” Let’s do the job together!”
IS  : Afis invited us to do the job together. Atau Afis suggested doing the job together.
DS : Najib says to his friends,” Let’s party now!”
IS  : Najib invites his friends to party now. Atau Najib suggest his friends that they party now.

5. Direct- Indirect Speech from Exclamation

 Exclamation adalah  ungkapan seruan, keheranan atau kekaguman. Jika kalimat dalam Direct Speech menggunakan Exclamation, maka kalimat Indirect Speech berubah menjadi pernyataan (Statement) dan menggunakan kata sambung (Conjunction) THAT.

Contoh :
DS : Delia said,” What a smart student Sharon is !”
IS  : Delia said that Sharon was a smart student.

6. Direct- Indirect Speech from Express gratitute, Wish and Greeting

Jika kalimat dalam Direct Speech menggunakan ungkapan terima kasih(Gratitute), doa (Wish), dan salam(Greeting), maka kalimat Indirect Speech menggunakan kata kerja yang sesuai dengan ungkapan tersebut.

Contoh :
DS : Andy said to me,” Goog luck!”
IS  : Andy wished me a luck.
DS : Tyas said to Dany,” Good morning Dany!”
IS  : Tyas greeted Dany in the morning.
DS : Nadya says to her teacher,” Thank you very much, sir!”
IS  : Nadya thanks her teacher very much.
DS : Reno said to his cousin,” Congratulation on your graduation!”
IS  : Reno congratulated his cousin on his graduation.

Catatan :
Perlu diperhatikan penggunaan modal MUST dalam Inderect Speech. Jika MUST digunakan dalam bentuk Future pada kalimat Direct Speech(kalimat langsung), maka MUST harus diubah menjadi WOULD HAVE TO dalam Indirect Speech (kalimat tak langsung).

Contoh :
DS : Susy told me,” You must attend the briefing tomorrow”.
IS  : Susy told me that I would have to attend the briefing the next day.
Jika MUST digunakan untuk menyatakan larangan (Prohibition) dalam kalimat langsung (Direct Speech), maka dalam kalimat tak langsung (Indirect Speech) bisa menggunakan MUST’N atau WASN’T TO.

Contoh :
DS : Nana told Nini,” You mustn’t drive a car in a stormyday”.
IS  : Nana told Nini that she mustn’t drive a car in a stormyday. Atau Nana told Nini that she wasn’t to drive a car in a stormyday.

Itulah Penjelasan Direct and Indirect Speech Complete plus Contoh Kalimat yang bisa saya bagikan. Semoga bermanfaat. Kurang lebihnya saya mohon maaf. Terima kasih.

0 komentar:

Posting Komentar