Pembahasan Adjective Clause dan Penggunaan Relative Pronoun

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

Adjective Clause and Relative Pronoun Complete
Terdiri dari dua kata yaitu Adjective dan Clause. Seperti yang kita ketahui Adjective dalam bahasa Inggris adalah kata sifat, sedangkan Clause adalah rangkaian kata yang bermakna dan berpola S + V yang membentuk kalimat atau bagian dari kalimat.

Clause terdiri dari Main Clause / Independent Clause / Induk kalimat dan Sub Clause/Dependent Clause/Anak Kalimat.

Main Clause atau disebut juga induk kalimat adalah rangkaian kata yang terdiri dari subjek dan predikat yang memiliki makna dan dapat berdiri sendiri .
Contoh :
*I like reading.
*The book is important
*She has understood.

Sub Clause atau  anak kalimat adalah rangkaian kata yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri membentuk kalimat atau hanya bagian dari kalimat . Artinya Sub Clause tergantung pada Main Clause.
Contoh :
*I go because you hate me. I go adalah Main Clause , because you hate me adalah Sub Clause.

Sub Clause dibagi menjadi 3 :
1. Noun Clause
Yaitu Sub Clause yang berfungsi sebagai noun .
*You know what I want . ( Kamu tahu apa yang aku inginkan) what I want menggantikan noun (kata benda) misalkan yang kita inginkan adalah uang, rumah dan sebagainya.

2. Adjective Clause
Yaitu anak kalimat (Sub Clause) yang berfungsi sebagai Adjective untuk menjelaskan noun (kata benda) yang terdapat dalam induk kalimat (Main Clause) sehingga membentuk rangkaian Noun Phrase.

3. Adverbial Clause
Adverbial caluse yaitu Sub Clause yang berfungsi sebagai Adverb. Di dalam Adjective Clause terdapat Relative Pronoun dan Relative Adverb. 

Relative Pronoun adalah Conjunction (kata hubung) yang sekaligus berfungsi menggantikan posisi subjek atau objek dalam rangkaian Adjective Clause. Relative Pronoun disebut juga sebagai Relative Clause. Sedangkan Relative Adverb adalah Conjunction (kata hubung) yang sekaligus berfungsi menggantikan posisi subjek atau objek dalam rangkaian Adverbial Clause.

Penggunaan Relative Pronoun.
a. Relative Pronoun sebagai pengganti subjek.
Conjunction yang digunakan adalah (WHO,THAT,WHICH)
Dalam bahasa Indonesia relative pronoun (WHO,THAT,WHICH) bermakna “YANG”.

WHO/THAT untuk subjek orang (Person)
Contoh kalimat :
MC : The boy sits beside me. (Seorang cowok duduk di sebelahku)
SC : He has a new car . ( Dia memiliki mobil baru )
*The boy who/that has a new car sits beside me. (Seorang cowok yang memiliki mobil baru duduk di sebelahku).
MC :The old man is not working in this company anylonger.
SC : He got’s fired for not doing his job well.
*The old man who/that got’s fired for not doing his job well is not working in this company anylonger.
MC : Won’t your mother help the old man ?
SC : He lives  alone in proverty.
*Won’t your mother help the old man who/that lives alone in proverty?

WHICH/THAT untuk subjek bukan orang (Non Person)
Contoh kalimat:
MC : Rice is our main food.
SC : It causes us fat.
*Rice which causes us fat is our main food.
MC : The book is lost.
SC :It was borrowed by Fajar.
*The book which was borrowed by Fajar is lost.
MC : The articles won’t be published soon.
SC : They need to be edited.
*The article that need to be editednwon’t be publised soon.

b. Relative Pronoun sebagai pengganti objek
Conjunction yang digunakan adalah (WHOM, WHO, THAT, WHICH ) dan penghilangan (Omitting) Relative Pronoun.
WHOM, WHO dan THAT untuk subjek orang (Person)
WHOM digunakan untuk Formal English atau Standar Written English.

Contoh kalimat :
MC : The students look tired.
SC : I teach them.
*The students whom I teach look tired.
MC : Where have you met the job applicant ?
SC : Many companies have rejected her .
*Where have you met the job applicant who/whom/that/ O many companies have rejected ?
MC : The tenant does not stay in this apartment anymore.
SC : This official letterr is addressed to him.
*The tenant who/whom/that/ O this official letterr is addressed to does not stay in thisd apartment anymore. Atau
* The tenant to whom this official letterr is addressed to does not stay in thisd apartment anymore.
Note : Jika sebelum kata ganti objek ( objek pronoun) didahului kata kerja depan ( Preposition ) maka kata depan ( Preposition )boleh ditempatkan sebelum WHOM.(by whom,for whom, in whom, from whom)

WHICH/THAT dan penghilangan (omitting) Relative Pronoun untuk objek bukan orang (Non Person)
WHICH digunakan untuk Formal English atau Standar Written English.

Contoh kalimat :
MC : I have found a coin.
SC : Ulfa searched it.
* I have found a coin which Ulfa searched.
MC : The book is interesting.
Sc : They read it.
*The book which they read is interesting.
MC : Where is the crazy dog chained ?
SC : A child was bitten by it.
* Where is the crazy dog which/that/O a child is bitten by chained ? atau
* Where is the crazy dog by which a child is bitten chained ?
Note : Jika sebelum kata ganti objek ( objek pronoun) didahului kata kerja depan ( Preposition ) maka kata depan ( Preposition ) boleh ditempatkan sebelum WHICH. (by which,for which, in which, from which)

c. Relative Pronoun pengganti kepemilikan .
Conjunction yang digunakan adalah WHOSE.
Relative Pronoun WHOSE digunakan untuk menggantikan Possessive Adjective ( kata ganti milik) dari kata ganti utama ( Main Noun ). Relative Pronoun WHOSE harus diikuti kata benda .
Relative Pronoun WHOSE bisa digunakan untuk orang (person) atau selain orang (non person).

Contoh kalimat :
MC : The plane is danger.
SC : Its landing wels can not work properly.
* The plane whose landing wels can not work properly is danger.
MC : The girl has 5 boy friends.
SC : Her father is an army.
* The girl whose father is an army has 5 boy friends.
MC : The children look very frightened.
SC : Their ball struck a man in a boat.
* The children whose ball struck a man in a boat look very frightened.

Note : Khusus untuk kata benda utama (main noun) yang berasal dari kata benda bukan orang ( non person ), maka untuk menyatakn makna kepemilikan (possessive meaning) bisa menggunakan Possessive Adjective (kata ganti milik) atau "the noun of the noun".
Contoh kalimat :
MC : When was the building built ?
SC 1: Its pillar have been cracked.
* When was the building whose pillars have been cracked built ?
Sc 2 : The pillars of it have been cracked.
*When was the building, the pillars of which have been cracked, build ?

IT di Sub Clause yang kedua adalah kata ganti objek dari The building (noun) dan IT diganti dengan Relative Pronoun WHICH. Sub Clause 1 dan Sub Clause 2 memiliki arti yang sama. Dalam bahasa tulis ( written expression) Main Clause dan Sub Clause harus dipisahkan dengan tanda baca koma ( , ).
Contoh-contoh lain :
MC : Will Erly attend the seminar ?
SC : The schedule of it confuses participants.
* Will Erly attend the seminar, the schedule of which confuses participants ?
MC : Who has cooked the soup ?
SC : Everyone likes the taste of it .
* Who has cooked the soup, the taste of which everyone likes ?
MC : The plants only grow on the mountain , don’t they ?
SC : The leaves of them can be used to heal disease.
* The plants, the leaves of which can be used to heal disease, only grow on the mountain , don’t they ?

d. Relative Pronoun dengan menggunakan Expression of Number ( some of, one of, both of, all of )
Relative Pronoun bisa digunakan bersama Expression of Number ( some of, one of, both of, all of )

Contoh :
MC : The students are studying in the classroom.
SC : Some of them ask questions to the teacher .
* The students, some of whom ask questions to the teacher, are studying in the classroom.
MC : When were the fishermen rescued from the sea ?
SC : Two of them had died before the rescue team arrived .
* When were the fishermen, two of whom had died before the rescue team arrived, rescued from the sea ?
MC : The trees were planted years ago.
SC : The loggers will cut most of them soon.
* The trees, most of which the loggers will cut, were planted years ago.
MC : Are the bikes still being repaired ?
SC : One of them belongs to your sister .
* Are the bikes, one of which belongs to your sister, still being repaired ?
MC : The child was bought to a hospital for a emergency treatment.
SC : Both of her arms got paralised suddenly.
* The child, both of whose arms got paralised suddenly, was bought to a hospital for a emergency treatment. 
MC : When did Ana buy the sugar ?
SC : Mother needs some of it for her cookies .
* When did Ana buy the sugar, some of which mother needs for her cookies ?
MC : Who is going to repaire the city car ?
SC : One of its tires became flat on the street.
*Who is going to repaire the city car, one of whose tires became flat on the street?

Note : Ketika Relative Pronoun digunakan bersama dengan Expression of Number, Main Clause dan Sub Clause harus dipisahkan dengan tanda koma ( , ) khususnya dalam bahasa tulisan ( Written English ).

 e. Relative Pronoun untuk mengganti keterangan
Conjunction yang digunakan adalah WHERE, WHEN, dan WHY .
Penggunaan WHERE
WHERE digunakan untuk menggabungkan kata benda utama (main noun ) dengan kata keterangan tempat ( Adverb of Place ).

Contoh :
MC : Will the building be renovated soon ?
SC : The first Asia Africa Conference was carried out there . ( in that building)
* Will the building where The first Asia Africa Conference was carried out be renovated soon ?
MC : The park is completed with a large beautiful garden , isn’t it ?
SC : Many young people spend their time there ( in that park ).
*The park where many young people spend their time is completed with a large beautiful garden, isn’t it?
MC : Is the highway always congested in the busy hours ?
SC : You saw a terrible accident there ( on that highway).
* Is the highway where you saw a terrible accident always congested in the busy hours ?

Selain menggunakan Relative Pronoun WHERE untuk menghubungkan dengan keterangan tempat (Adverb of Place) dengan kata benda utama (main noun), kita juga bisa menggunakan WHICH atau THAT.
Contoh :
MC : The big city becomes the center of the government.
SC : Millions people live there ( in that city )
*The big city where millions people live becomes the center of the government. Atau
*The big city which/that/O Millions people live in becomes the center of the government. Atau
*The big city in which millions people live becomes the center of the government.

Penggunaan WHEN
WHEN digunakan untuk menggabungkan kata benda utama (main noun) dengan kata keterangan waktu (Adverb of Time ).

Contoh :
MC : Azoka can’t forget the day.
SC : He went away then (on that day)
* Azoka can’t forget the day when he went away. Atau
* Azoka can’t forget the day on which he went away.
* Azoka can’t forget the day which he went away.   (salah)

* Azoka can’t forget the day that he went away. Atau
* Azoka can’t forget the day he went away. ( Omitting Relative Pronoun )

Note : Preposision (kata depan) untuk keterangan waktu (Adverb of Time) hanya digunakan sebelum WHICH (on which, at which, in which ).
Contoh-contoh lain :
MC : Is January the month ?
SC : All people celebrate a new year then (In that month)
* Is January the month when/in which all people celebrate a new year ?
MC : The teacher told us the time.
SC : We would face the written test then ( at that time )
* The teacher told us the time when/at which we would face the written test ?

Preposition of time

Time
at
Clock
at
Day
on
Date
on
Month
in
Year
in
Century
in

Penggunaan WHY
WHY digunakan untuk menggabungkan kata benda utama (main noun) dengan kata keterangan alasan (Adverb of Reason). WHY hanya digunakan dengan main noun the reason .
Contoh :
Andy told me the reason why Vio was absent in the aftenoon class yesterday.
The reason why people are very busy earning money is very common.

f. Jenis-jenis Adjective Clause
Ada 2 jenis Adjective Clause yaitu :
1. Identifying Clause
Identifying Clause dalah klausa yang digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi kaytabenda yang diikuti klausa tersebut . Identifying Clause sangat penting karena tanpa klausa itu kita tidak tahu benda yang mana yang dibicarakan si pembicara.
Contoh :
*The man feels confused. ( Kalimat ini belum bisa dipahami karena kita tidak tahu lelaki mana yang dibicarakan maka kita harus meletakkan klausa yang menjelaskan lelaki yang mana yang dimaksudkan).
Contoh lain :
*The man who lost much money in his business feels confused.
Adjective Clause who lost much money in his business itu menjelaskan The man di induk kalimat (Main Clause ).

Contoh-contoh lain :
MC : The temple is used for workshiping.
SC : It has many statues and reliefs.
* The temple which/that has many statues and reliefs is ethniscused for workshiping.
MC : The sailors are sailing a cross the strait to catch fish.
SC : We know and adore them.
* The sailors who/whom/that/O we know and adore are sailing a cross the strait to catch fish.
MC : The city never sleeps night and day.
SC : Its populations are multi ethnics.
* The city whose populations are multi ethnics never sleeps night and day.
MC : When was the wounded rabbit found ?
SC : It was neglected by her mother.
* When was the wounded rabbit which/that was neglected by her mother ?
MC : Are the problems very confusing ?
SC : Many people are trying to solve them.
* Are the problems which/that/O are trying to solve them ?

Cara pembentukan Adjective Clause
1. Analisa kedua kalimat.
2. Cari noun dan pronoun yang sama dari kedua kalimat. (Lihat huruf yang berwarna merah ! )
3. Ganti pronoun kalimat ke 2 dengan conjunction yang sesuai.
4. Letakkan rangkaian tersebut (Sub Clause) setelah noun (kalimat ke 1) yang sama.

2. Non- Identifying Clause
Non- Identifying Clause adalah klausa yang digunakan hanya untuk memberi keterangan lanjutan/tambahan tetapi bukan untuk mengidentifikasi kata benda yang diikuti klausa tersebut karena kata benda utama (main noun) sudah diidentifikasi dengan Nama, Possessive Adjective, Expressions of measurement dan Demonstrative words (kata penunjuk). Klausa ini tidak umum digunakan dalam bahasa cakap (spoken language), tetapi lebih umum digunakan dalam bahasa tulis.

Contoh :
*Professor William, who/that invented a talking robot, was nominated to get a gold medal.
Klausa “who invented a talking robot” tidak digunakan untuk menidentifikasi "Professor William”  sebagai kata benda utama (main noun), tetapi klausa itu hanya memberi keterangan tambahan tentang "Professor William”.

Contoh-contoh yang lain :
*My smartphone, which/that/O my sister sold, is still in a good shape.
*This class, which/that emphasizes to develop the speaking skill, often becomes a student’s favourite.
*Who is talking to dr. Anthony, whose wife was kidnapped few days ago ?
*Rita’s new bookstore, where the fire took place last night, has been insured.
*Have you inverviewed your school principal, whom/who/that/O all students are proud of.?
*Azmil, whose father passed away last year, has to earn living for her mother ang her brother.
*Yussy drank a cup of tea, which she wanted to serve to her mother’s guest.

Note :
  • Relative Pronoun THAT tidak bisa digunakan untuk Non- Identifying Clause.
  • WHOM/WHICH untuk penggunaan kata ganti objek (using object pronoun) tidak boleh dihilangkan/dihapus (omitted/deleted).
  • Untuk bahasa tulis (Written Expressions) , Main Clause dan Sub Clause harus dipisahkan dengan tanda baca koma ( , ). 
Itulah Pembahasan Adjective Clause dan Penggunaan Relative Pronoun yang bisa saya bagikan. . Semoga bermanfaat. Jika anda memiliki pendapat lain, jangan sungkan untuk berkomentar. Sekian dan terima kasih :)

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